Cultural Evolution (Tools)
Human Biology (Year 12) - Hominin Evolution
What tool cultures characterised the recent Hominins?
Homo habilis: Oldowan tools
Homo erectus: Acheulian tools
Homo neanderthalensis: Mousterian industries (tools)
Homo sapiens: Aurignacian, Solutrean and Magdalenian
What were Oldowan tools?
Oldowan tools were simple, primitive and had no predetermined design. They were made from stones and pebbles.
Characteristics of Oldowan tools included;
Basic pebble tools
Choppers, scrapers, flakes and chisels
Used to smash bones open
Precision grip employed as it was round with one jagged edge
Allowed them to exploit larger areas and hence migrate
What were Acheulian tools?
Acheulian tools were tools which influenced social organisation through its manufacturing, and included tools made from bones and stones.
Characteristics of Acheulian tools included;
Tear-drop in shape, flaked all around the edges
Worked on both sides
Helped hunting and building shelters
What were Mousterian industries?
Mousterian industries involved the production of stone flakes that could be trimmed to create various cutting, scraping, piercing and gouging tools.
Characteristics of Mousterian industries included;
Stones trimmed into disc-shaped core and struck by another piece to produce flakes
Aided in clothes production for cooler climates
What was the Aurignacian culture?
Aurignacian culture was characterised by the use of bone and stone to prepare finely crafted tools.
Characteristics of Aurignacian culture included;
Rectangular 'stone' blade tool with one or two sharp edges
Made by pressure flaking
Attached to branches to make axes
What was the Solutrean culture
Solutrean culture involved more of a decorative use of tools, and served little practical purpose.
Characteristics of Solutrean culture included;
Laurel leaf or willow leaf shaped flake stone tools
Intricate flaking on every edge
Used as spears or cutting
What was the Magdalenian culture?
Magdalenian culture involved the first tools made by bone, antlers and ivory.
Characteristics of Magdalenian culture included;
Usually pointed, sometimes with barbs
Included fishhooks, spearheads, harpoons and needles
Burin, chisel like cutter was used to make these tools