Visual Text Analysis
English (Year 12)
Documentary Conventions (Non-Fiction)
Focaliser: A focaliser is a person, group or subject that the documentary film focuses on. It can be a central figure, an event, or a place.
Voiceover: Voiceover is a technique where a voice is used to provide additional information or commentary on the film. It is often used to provide exposition or to give insight into the subject matter.
Interviews: Interviews involve talking to people who are relevant to the subject matter of the documentary. They can be used to provide insight, perspective, and personal experiences.
Bias: Bias refers to the subjective viewpoint or position of the filmmaker. A documentary may have a bias towards a particular viewpoint or perspective.
Sound (SFX): Sound effects are sounds that are created or recorded to enhance the film's audio experience. They can be used to create a sense of atmosphere or to add realism to the visuals.
Music: Music is a key element of film that can be used to create a particular mood or atmosphere. It can be used to heighten tension, evoke emotion, or provide a contrast to the visuals.
Editing: Editing is the process of selecting and arranging the shots to create the final film. It can be used to control the pacing, rhythm, and flow of the film, and to create visual continuity between shots.
Use of text, titles: Text, titles, and subtitles can be used to provide information, context, or to create a visual effect. They are often used to introduce subjects or provide location and time information.
“Real footage” of events: This refers to actual footage of events that have occurred and are relevant to the subject matter of the documentary.
Archival footage: Archival footage is historical footage that is relevant to the subject matter of the documentary. It can be used to provide context or to show historical events.
Re-enactments: Re-enactments involve recreating events that have occurred in the past. They can be used to provide a visual representation of events that may not have been recorded.
Mise en scene: Mise en scene refers to the overall visual design and composition of the film. It includes the set design, lighting, costumes, and camera angles.
Montage: Montage is a technique where a series of shots are edited together to create a narrative or emotional sequence. It can be used to compress time, convey a subject's emotions, or provide background information.
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