Psychology (Year 12)
Interactions between parents and their children are often reciprocal. Many factors can impact this relationship, including the amount of control that the parent has over the child (the level of supervision and behavioural regulation), the temperament of the child, other family relationships such as that between the parents, and the level of responsiveness that the parent employs (support and affection).
Diana Baumrind suggested four distinct parenting styles based on two components, also referred to as the “dimensions of parenting”. These components include:
responsiveness refers to the rate at which the parent responds to and appreciates the child’s view.
control refers to whether or not the parent regularly monitors behaviour and sets expectations.
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles
The parenting styles proposed the parenting styles that include:
authoritarian parenting - the parent demands obedience with little interest of the child’s viewpoint.
uninvolved parenting - an approach that is often neglectful; no limits are set and no interest is shown.
authoritative parenting - the parent has reasonable demands and gives explanations as to why they exist, is responsive to the child’s viewpoint, and expects age-appropriate behaviour.
permissive parenting - the parent sets few rules or guidelines, and often does not adequately control behaviour; seen as indulgent and lenient parenting.
A study found that children with authoritative parents were more achievement-oriented and had better social skills, whereas those with permissive parents were more prone to temper tantrums and aggression.
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