Modern History (Year 12) - New Cold War
What is perestroika?
Perestroika was a political and economic reform program introduced in the Soviet Union during the 1980s by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. The term "perestroika" literally means "restructuring" in Russian. The goal of Perestroika was to modernize and reform the Soviet economy and political system to make it more efficient, competitive and responsive to the needs of the people.
One of the key figures associated with Perestroika was Mikhail Gorbachev himself, who introduced the program and pushed for its implementation. He believed that Perestroika was necessary to address the economic and political problems facing the Soviet Union, such as inefficiency, corruption, and lack of innovation. He also believed that Perestroika was necessary to improve living standards and make the Soviet system more responsive to the needs of the people.
Another notable figure was Alexander Yakovlev, one of Gorbachev's closest advisors and a leading architect of Perestroika. He was a key figure in the liberalization of Soviet society and the promotion of greater economic and political freedom. He proposed the idea of "perestroika" and helped Gorbachev in its implementation. Yakovlev was instrumental in the introduction of market-oriented economic policies, such as price liberalization and the creation of cooperatives.
Perestroika led to significant changes in the Soviet economy and society, such as the decentralization of economic decision-making, the creation of private property and the introduction of market-oriented economic policies. However, Perestroika also led to significant economic problems, such as inflation and shortages of consumer goods, and it ultimately failed in bringing the intended economic and political changes.
Perestroika was also accompanied by a political program of democratization, which included the introduction of multi-candidate elections and the expansion of freedom of speech and press. The program ultimately failed in bringing the intended political changes, and it contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.