Human Biology (Year 12) - Technology in Treating Diseases
What are the main thyroid disorders?
Both the over secretion or under secretion of thyroid hormones can cause disruptions to homeostasis. The predominant hormone secreted by the thyroid gland include thyroxine (T3) and triiodothyronine (T4), which both contain iodine and control the cells metabolic rate.
The two main disorders you need to have an awareness of include hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.
What is hyperthyroidism?
Hyperthyrodism is a disorder which is caused by overactivity of the thyroid gland, resulting in too much thyroxine being produced.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:
Protruding eyeballs (Graves disease)
The treatment options for hyperthyroidism include:
Drugs which block the thyroid gland
Surgery to remove either part of or the entire thyroid gland
Drinking radioactive iodine which targets thyroid cells (kills thyroid cells)
What is hypothyroidism?
The cause of hypothyroidism lies within the underproduction of thyroxine by the thyroid gland.
The symptoms of hypothyroidism includes:
Unexplained weight gain
Fatigue or lack of energy
Intolerance to cold
Swelling of the face
Goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland resulting in a swollen neck)
The treatment options for hypothyroidism includes:
Extra iodine in the diet
Tablets containing thyroid hormones (synthetic levothyroxine (T4))