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Web Authoring

Applied IT (Year 11) - Application Skills (U2)

Jeckmen Wu


Hyperlinks are links that provide direct access from a hypertext document to another document OR to another location in the same document (e.g. a content menu located near the top of articles with links to different sections of the article ). It allows users to easily navigate between web pages and resources on the internet by simply clicking on an icon, graphic, or a piece of highlighted text.


Graphics include more than just images. They are the visual elements used on a web page that enhance the user experience by adding visual interest and providing visual aids to emphasise and convey important information. Therefore, graphics can include photos, illustrations, charts/graphs and maps.


Templates are predesigned webpages with the structure for the layout & display features already in-built, allowing users to simply drag & drop or copy & paste their content into the allocated spaces.

Naturally, using a template will offer many benefits such as:

  • Convenience – can be extremely time saving, especially for someone new to web design 

  • Cost-effective – no need to hire a professional web designer

  • Consistency – ensures the website is cohesive by sustaining the same theme and style across all web pages (e.g. via a similar layout & navigation structure, colour scheme, and typography).

  • User Experience – as many templates are developed by professionals, there is a reduced chance of bugs or malfunctions that may diminish user experience (e.g. being unresponsive to different devices or screen sizes).

However, there are also several disadvantages to consider when deciding to use a template:

  • Lack of Uniqueness – a template is by definition a model to be copied, so the design will often be generic (unless it was specifically designed for your brand) and likely overused. This makes it difficult to stand out against other competing websites with a similar design style. 

  • Restrictive – rather than designing your website around the content you plan to include, you are instead forced to adapt your content to the design. This may result in the problem of either having too much or too little allocated space (e.g. if you have a lot of images but there are only a limited amount of graphic placeholders, you will be forced to cut out some).

  • Incompatibility – since templates are not designed for a specific brand, they will often not be fully compatible or fully reflective of your brand’s identity so you may have to be flexible with your branding if you want the website to be a perfect fit.

Types of Files

  • Hypertext Markup Language File (.htm/.html) – the standard markup language used to textually describe how content is structured within a webpage (e.g. defines headings & paragraphs, embeds media, implements navigational features such as menus).

  • Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) – a styling language used to format the layout & visual presentation of web pages (e.g. colour, font, spacing, animation/transitions such as hover and fade in/out effects). It is also importantly responsible for creating a responsive design (i.e. making the website adaptable to different devices)

HTML represents the core of the web page, providing a solid foundation by defining the structure and content (i.e. what elements are on the page). CSS represents the extra decorations that style the web page to make it visually appealing by defining the style and layout (i.e. how those elements look and are positioned).

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